Online Magazine of the Visual Narrative - ISSN 1780-678X
Do you speak Kubrick? Orchestrating Transgression and Mastering Malaise in The Shining
Author: Elizabeth Mullen
Abstract (E): In The Shining, Stanley Kubrick appropriates the codes of gothic horror and uses them to create both an extremely effective film and a commentary on the workings of horror. Ironically, it is through his obsessively controlling and all-encompassing directorial style that Kubrick best conveys the gothic themes of transgression, ambiguous identity, and the monstrous/abject. Kubrick's idiolect combines original source material (Stephen King's novel, Bartók's music) and cinematic technique, transforming them in ways which force the spectator into an uneasy dialogue based on Kubrick's filmic language.
Abstract (F): Dans son film, Shining, Stanley Kubrick s'approprie les codes génériques de l'horreur et du gothique, créant à la fois un film efficace et un commentaire sur les rouages du genre. Il est ironique que Kubrick se serve de son style notoirement autoritaire et méticuleux afin de transmettre les thèmes gothiques de la transgression, le brouillage de l'identité et l'abject/monstrueux. L'idiolecte cinématographique Kubrickien transforme ses sources (le roman de Stephen King, la musique de Bartók), forçant ainsi le spectateur à dialoguer avec le film dans un langage qui le met mal à l'aise.
keywords: gothic, adaptation, malaise, abject, cinema
To cite this article:
In discussing any work by the filmmaker Stanley Kubrick, one must first get past the myths surrounding him. On the 2,530,000 web sites where Kubrick is mentioned, much has been made of the 1.3 million feet of film shot for The Shining, the 127 takes for a single scene with Shelley Duvall, and the notorious clashes with many of the authors whose works he has adapted (including Stephen King). Kubrick's obsessive attention to detail, coupled with his unwillingness to discuss his personal life or his work in progress, have led to a number of rumors in the press, ranging from his suffering from Asperger's Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder to his shooting a fan twice: once for trespassing, and again for bleeding on his lawn. These elements feed the legend of Kubrick but do not really explain the enduring effectiveness of a film like The Shining. In the manifesto, "All Work and No Play Makes Stanley Kubrick a Fucking Genius," the horror film site Killer Film more clearly states its case: " Stanley Kubrick is one of the greatest directors to ever give life to film. This is not an opinion. It is fact. He is an auteur. Plain and simple." Except of course understanding what makes Kubrick an auteur is neither plain nor simple. The eclectic nature of his films (Lolita, Dr; Strangelove, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Barry Lyndon and Full Metal Jacket, to name only a few) defies uniform analysis. Unlike the work of a Tim Burton or a David Lynch, Kubrick's films are not instantly identifiable, yet through his films a definite language emerges. Here, I shall focus exclusively on how Kubrick engages the spectator in The Shining, (mis)leading him down the path of Gothic transgression, ambiguity, and malaise.
Adapting the Gothic Tale
The basic plot of The Shining (both the Kubrick film and the Stephen King novel) follows standard Gothic lines. A struggling writer applies for a job as winter caretaker for a luxurious resort hotel built on top of a sacred Indian burial ground. The hotel has a lurid past: a few years previously, one of the former caretakers chopped up his wife and two daughters with an axe, stacking them neatly then killing himself. Dismissing this grisly tale ("that's quite a story") the writer (Jack) takes the job and brings his wife and 5-year-old son to spend the winter in the hotel.
The little boy (Danny) has a gift: he can see glimpses of both the future and the past via Tony, "the little boy who lives in [his] mouth." Predictably, Tony has a bad feeling about moving to the Overlook hotel. Danny shares this gift (called "shining") with the hotel cook, Halloran, who explains to him that places sometimes carry traces of the past, perceptible only to those who "shine." Danny asks Halloran about the bad thing he has sensed in the hotel, and Halloran says that these lingering traces of the past cannot hurt him. He then harshly warns Danny never to go into room 237 - to "stay out."
Danny's visions increase once the family is settled into their new home. He sees two little girls in prim dresses, alternately inviting him to "come and play" with them "forever and ever and ever" and lying with their mutilated bodies strewn about the hotel corridor. At the same time, Jack's behavior becomes increasingly moody and erratic as he falls deeper and deeper under the "spell" of the Bad Place , losing patience with his wife and son. His past history of alcoholism and child abuse (omipresent in the book, mentioned briefly in the film) haunts him as well, as does his inability to write. The claustrophobic atmosphere of the immense yet isolated hotel becomes ever more oppressive as the winter closes in.
Inexplicable events happen with increasing frequency. Jack has a nightmare about killing his family and chopping them up into little pieces. Danny disregards Halloran's warning and enters the forbidden, Bluebeardian Room 237, where he is attacked. Upon seeing Danny's catatonic expression and badly bruised throat, Wendy immediately accuses Jack of hurting the boy. Jack wanders into an empty ballroom, mutters" I'd sell my soul for a glass of beer" and the barman mysteriously appears. Wendy bursts into the ballroom to tell Jack about the "crazy woman" in Room 237; Jack has his own encounter with the creature (a beautiful, seductive woman who turns out to be a rotting hag) then denies seeing anything out of the ordinary. Later he meets and makes a deal with Grady, the murderous former caretaker who gives him advice on controlling his wife and child. Under Grady's influence, Jack decides he must also "correct" his family by chopping them up. Increasingly isolated on the upper floors of the hotel (a kind of deranged damsel in distress in her turret) Wendy knocks Jack out, locks him in the kitchen pantry and tries to escape with Danny, only to find that Jack has sabotaged the radio and the snowmobile, thus trapping them in the hotel. In the only undeniably supernatural moment of the film, the dead caretaker Grady comes and releases Jack from the pantry, allowing him to resume his "job" (killing Wendy and Danny). Danny "shines" his situation to Halloran, who immediately embarks on a peril-fraught journey to free Danny and his mother from the clutches of the hotel.
At ths point the two Gothic stories diverge. In King's novel, Halloran saves the day, battling giant carnivorous topiary bushes to get into, then out of the hotel with Wendy and Danny safely in tow. Jack literally self-destructs, smashing in his own head with a hammer in order to save his son from what he has become. The hotel is destroyed in a massive explosion à la House of Usher, and Wendy, Danny, and Halloran live to tell the tale.
While remaining true to Gothic codes, Kubrick's version is more ambivalent, with no reassuring resolution at the end of the story. The animated topiary bushes become an immense topiary maze. Halloran rushes to save Danny, only to be killed the minute he enters the hotel (the only onscreen killing in the film). Danny escapes alone into the maze, hotly pursued by his crazed, axe-wielding father. Danny cleverly avoids capture by retracing his steps in the snow, leaving Jack to lope aimlessly along the maze's corridors, finally freezing to death. Danny and Wendy escape, but the hotel does not explode. Instead, to the sounds of a twenties dance song, the camera zooms in on a closeup of an old photograph, dated July 4th, 1921, where among the guests Jack Torrance can be clearly seen. As Grady has said earlier, Jack "has always been the caretaker" and apparently will remain so. The film seems to imply that business will open as usual the following season and the manager will have another uncomfortable story to explain to the next caretaker. Like the house in Burnt Offerings (1976), The Overlook will continue to feed on its fragile victims.
Kubrick has shown a distinct preference for adapting literary sources as opposed to working from original material. While this may seem surprising in a director as obsessively controlling as Kubrick, in an interview with Michel Ciment he explains his choice:
All of Kubrick's painstaking attention to detail is geared toward orchestrating and intensifying that "first virginal experience." This approach is in keeping with what Kubrick sees as the way films should work: "A film is — or should be — more like music than fiction. It should be a progression of moods and feelings. The theme, what's behind the emotion, the meaning, all that comes later" (IMDB).
In adapting King's novel, Kubrick focuses on capturing and gradually intensifying the feelings of malaise and dread which stem from the interaction between the Overlook Hotel and the fragile, dysfunctional Torrance family. In addition to the aforementioned changes (Halloran as victim rather than hero, a vast topiary maze instead of roaming flesh-eating plant-creatures) Kubrick cuts out most of the passages dealing with Jack's washed-up teaching career, his writing projects, his alcoholism and his violent fits of rage. For practical reasons he also cuts a number of scenes at the Overlook, the most substantial being Jack's discovery in the boiler room of an old scrapbook detailing the hotel's sordid history, and a number of scenes where Danny is confronted by an evil presence (an empty hive filling with wasps and badly stinging him, a fire hose which unloops itself like a snake and attacks him, an ominous unseen presence in the playground which tries to trap him).
While many of the changes outlined above serve to tighten and focus the narrative, killing Halloran subverts the heroic fairy-tale paradigm and thwarts the spectator's expectations, exacerbating his feelings of uneasy confusion. Similarly, the modern sophisticated architecture of the Overlook, inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright and mostly shot in daylight, has seemingly little to do with the mouldering European castles (or even creaky New England mansions) more common to the genre, making the locus horribilis more horrible in its unexpected form. Kubrick once remarked, " How could we possibly appreciate the Mona Lisa if Leonardo had written at the bottom of the canvas, 'The lady is smiling because she is hiding a secret from her lover'?"(IMDB). Kubrick's approach to adapting King's novel follows this logic: he lures the spectator off the beaten path without explaining the journey.
Film Technique, Transgression, and Malaise
Attempts at interpreting the meaning of Kubrick's film are not lacking, and their very abundance suggests the film's hermaneutic polyphony. The Shining has been analyzed as a Marxist condemnation of American capitalism and as a denunciation of the negative effects of television. Freudian interpretations of the film abound and a number of interesting insights have been made about the links between the Overlook and the monstrous feminine. In her pivotal article on The Shining, Gaïd Girard analyses how Kubrick explores Gothic transgression and malaise in purely cinematic terms, manipulating the spectator's sense of perception and heaping sign upon sign, to the point where the spectator is literally lost, unable to makes sense of what he experiences on screen. Girard links this intense feeling of malaise to postmodern literature and to the visual arts, citing such artists as Thomas Pynchon, Joseph Albers, M.C. Escher, and Moëbius (Girard 184, 189-90).
In her minute analysis of the figure of the labyrinth, Girard comments on how Kubrick's film becomes in fact a massive labyrinth where every interpretive end is a dead end and where he trangresses the "rules" of reality, time, and space. Kubrick's extensive use of the Steadicam — a hand-held camera mounted on an arm which allows the cameraman to film on foot without the usual jerkiness associated with hand-held shots — gives the camera movement a surreal, flowing quality, especially apparent in the scenes where Danny rides his tricycle down the deserted corridors of the hotel and in the maze scenes. Girard pinpoints the eerie effect created by the combination of diegetic sound and an untrustworthy subjective camera:
Similarly, the scene where Jack looks menacingly over the model of the labyrinth and seems to see and hear his wife and son inside presents the spectator with an impossible situation. Are Wendy and Danny somehow in the model? Is Jack outside hovering over the actual maze? Neither of these conclusions is possible and the viewer is left uncomfortable and confused. The scene ends abruptly with a clash of the cymbals and a cut to the inexplicably menacing title card "TUESDAY," in white on black background, filling the screen.
Girard further comments on how Kubrick plays not only with gothic but with cinematic codes, for example in the scene where the woman/hag rises from the bathtub and engulfs Jack in her rotting embrace, effectively recreating the shower scene from Psycho in reverse and nodding to a similar scene in Clouzot's Diaboliques (184). Kubrick leads spectators used to contemporary horror films like Alien, Night of the Living Dead, and The Exorcist down twisted narrative paths, subverting the codes they rely on to make sense of what they see and hear.
As he does with the image, Kubrick layers sound upon sound, misleading and destabilizing the spectator expecting a film like Psycho or Jaws, where scary music means bad things are about to happen. In the opening scene, the majestic helicopter shots over the Rockies, tracing the Torrance's tiny car's progression towards the hotel at the barren top of the mountain, and the haunting musical score, an eerie, synthesizer-laden version of the medieval Dies Irae theme — the Day of Wrath — combine to unseat the spectator from the outset. Like the previously described title card, the scene ends abruptly with a jump-cut to the words "THE INTERVIEW."
Two other malaise-inducing sound techniques are worthy of note. Repeatedly, Kubrick suffuses a seemingly "normal" scene with disturbing sound, often a single high-pitched note. Such instances include Jack's phone conversation with Wendy when he gets the job, Halloran telling Wendy about all the food in the pantry (just before "shining" to Danny), and Wendy and Danny laughing and throwing snowballs outdoors.
Kubrick also increases spectator malaise by linking seemingly unrelated scenes via sound. We hear odd, tinkling chimes first when Jack is observing Danny and Wendy in the maze, then again when he is in front of his typewriter. The creepy music accompanying Danny's second tricycle journey (the one where the Diane Arbus-inspired twin girls alternately invite him to play with them forever and ever, and appear blood-spattered on the floor) is repeated in the scene where Danny goes into the family apartment in search of a fire engine and finds his father there.
In this scene, not only does the music misleadingly signal that something bad is about to happen, the way the scene is filmed also leads the spectator to expect the worst. A medium shot shows the door slowly opening and Danny carefully pokes his head in, never taking his eyes off something (someone?) off-camera. He tiptoes up the stairs and the camera quickly pans to a long shot of Jack in profile, sitting on the bed. In the background, near the center of the frame is the bathroom where Jack will later trap Danny and Wendy and the window through which Danny will make his escape. Jack slowly turns his head and the camera cuts to a reverse full shot where we can see his expression in the mirror as he gazes at his son. Slightly left of center, Danny is easily the smallest figure in the frame as he asks for permission to get his fire engine. Jack's beckoning hand is doubled in the mirror and Danny starts walking robotically towards his father. The camera cuts again to a full shot of Jack sitting on the bed as Danny enters the frame from the center left. It takes him 15 seconds to get from the hallway to his father and his excruciatingly slow pace heightens the viewer's anxiety. Pulling Danny on his lap, Jack cradles the boy and kisses his head as Danny still stares off-camera, presumably at the mirror. The most visible light source in the scene is the bathroom window.
Were it not for the eerie music, what follows would seem tender at first. The camera cuts to a two-shot of Danny and Jack, who continues to caress his hair. Imperceptibly the dialogue, reproduced below, becomes more strained, each phrase becoming more charged with menace as Jack's expression becomes more and more calculating and his tone more alarming:
The dialogue lasts almost three minutes, long pauses marking each reply, again increasing the tension of the scene. When Jack says "I love you Danny... and I would never do anything to hurt ya," the strange tinkling music associated with the maze can be heard once again, foreshadowing the statement's contradiction at the end of the film and linking it to the maze. Again the spectator's anxiety is raised to fever pitch, only to be abruptly interrupted by a title card marked "WEDNESDAY." As spectators we are exhausted before any of the serious supernatural manifestations (with the exception of the little girls) begin to appear, and we begin to mistrust our reading of the events on the screen. Camera work, dialogue, sound, and facial expressions work together to keep the spectator wondering how to interpret what is happening on screen
Speaking Kubrick: Kubrickian Idiolect and Bakhtinian Dialogism
Martin Scorsese has remarked that "with each film, Kubrick redefined himself as well as redefining cinema and the scope of its possibilities" (Cahiers du Cinéma 23). In the case of The Shining, Kubrick explores the reaches of cinematic hybridity, combining fairy tale, contradiction, saturation, misdirection and the abject. In the process he redefines the Gothic as well, intentionally using, then subverting Gothic tropes. As Girard points out, he gives us the labyrinth but no Minotaur and no ball of twine. Examining some of the elements of Kubrickian idiolect will shed light on on the language he creates.
According to movie legend, Kubrick and his co-screenwriter Diane Johnson read only two books in preparation for the writing of The Shining: Freud's essay on the Uncanny and a book on fairy tales, The Uses of Enchantment by Bruno Bettelheim. Fairy tale elements abound especially in the film's dialogue. On the way to the Overlook, when Jack explains that the Donner Party had to resort to cannibalism, Danny replies "you mean they ate each other up?" mirroring the lines found in Hansel and Gretel, Little Red Riding Hood, and a more recent "fairy tale," Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are (1963). In the kitchen Wendy tells Halloran she will "have to leave a trail of bread crumbs" to find her way around, and compares the soon-to-be empty hotel to a "ghost ship" (not strictly a fairy tale trope, but certainly Gothic). Just before hacking away at the bathroom door, Jack quotes from the Three Little Pigs, threatening "I'll huff, and I'll puff, and I'll blow your house in!" His appearance at this point — hair and beard awry, red flannel shirt and axe in hand — remind us both of the woodsman who slays the Big Bad Wolf and the Big Bad Wolf himself. The signs pervading the Overlook do not signify — at least not in any comprehensible way — just as Jack's writing is a mass of intricately organized nonsense and the title cards interspersed in the film do not help the spectator accurately measure the passage of time: Kubrick has taken us through the looking glass.
Actual looking glasses are an important part of Kubrick's idiolect in this film. Mirrors serve as anamorphic guides, both distorting and revealing meaning. The most striking example of this double function is of course the famous REDRUM scene, where Wendy only makes sense of Tony's gutteral moans when she sees the word reflected in the mirror: MURDER. But other more subtle instances pervade the film. Tony first shows Danny the source of his fear (the blood-washed elevator, the eerie twin girls) when Danny is staring in a mirror. Jack's changing expressions are repeatedly reflected in mirrors, and it is upon glimpsing his reflection in the bathroom mirror that he realizes he is embracing rotting flesh. At other times the spectator thinks he is watching the scene take place, only to find he has been looking at a reflection in the mirror. Kubrick uses mirrors in such a way that they only reveal meaning when viewed from a certain perspective.
Kubrick's overloading of image and sound produces a similar destabilizing effect. There is simply too much for the spectator to grasp with his limited perception. Hitchcock and Warhol had already shown the uncanny side of visual saturation: one bird and one can of soup are familiar, comforting. A thousand birds and rows upon rows of cans of soup decidedly less so. In the same vein, Robert Wise had successfully shown the effectiveness of combining image and sound saturation to create anxiety in his masterpiece, The Haunting. Like Wise, Kubrick overloads the frame and the soundtrack and combines them in contradictory ways. Unlike Wise, Kubrick does not rely here on voiceover narration to help guide his spectators through the confusion, and thus the feeling of contradiction he creates is deeper, more unsettling.
Kubrickian contradiction is especially apparent in his use of dialogue. As Sarah Kosloff points out, film dialogue is not realistic speech: it is designed with the spectator in mind (Kosloff 121). In The Shining, Kubrick pushes this inherent artificiality to the extreme. With a few exceptions, the actual dialogue is marked by its banality. It is the interplay between the facial expressions, tone, and other sound elements (music, diegetic noises) which give the seemingly innocuous words their power to perturb. One striking example of this contradictory effect can be seen (and heard) in the pantry scene where Jack tries to coax Wendy into letting him out. In an extreme low angle shot (in fact the cameraman is lying under Jack's leaning body) we watch Jack's expression change as he tries several different verbal tactics, a calculating diabolical grin periodically stretched across his face, belying the words he speaks. His voice varies in tone, from reasonable ("Let me out of here and I'll forget the whole goddamn thing. It'll be like it never happened) to pathetic ("Wendy, baby, I think you hurt my head real bad. I'm dizzy — I need a doctor. Honey, don't leave me here") to mischievious ("You got a big surprise coming to you! You're not going anywhere. Go check out the Snowcat and the radio and you'll see what I mean). In scene after scene, what the characters say and how they say it send contradictory messages.
As Jack succumbs more and more to the house's influence, his speech increasingly reflects the fact that he is coming apart. Whereas earlier in the film his tight, sarcastic tone contradicts his bland words, later the words themselves reflect this contradiction. The most famous example of this kind of speech happens when Jack is pursuing a terrified, bat-wielding Wendy slowly up the stairs. In response to her hysterical cries of "Stay away from me! Don't hurt me!" Jack reassures her, "I'm not gonna hurt ya. Wendy, darling, light of my life, I'm not gonna hurt ya. You didn't let me finish my sentence. I said I'm not gonna hurt ya — I'm just gonna bash your brains in. I'm gonna bash 'em right the fuck in!" In the final moments of the film, Jack's speech ironically patterns itself on television references. From his remark upon freeing himself ("Wendy, I'm home!") to the classic "Here's Johnny!" jubilantly uttered as he smashes the door with an axe, his words become more and more conventional as his actions become more and more deranged. By the end of the film he barely speaks at all, bellowing "Danny!" as he chases his son along the maze's snowy corridors, then emitting a kind of animal howl as he succumbs to the cold.
James Naremore remarks that "Although Kubrick is normally treated as an artist who deals in big, important ideas, one of the keys to his style lies in his anxious fascination with the human body and his ability, which he shares with all black humorists and artists of the grotesque, to yoke together conflicting emotions, so that he confuses both our intellectual and emotional responses" (Naremore 10). Contradiction and the abject are linked in The Shining. For all the Overlook's geometric majesty, The Shining is a film obsessed with the body and its excretions. For Barbara Creed, the horror film is the ideal playground for the abject, focusing as it often does on bodily boundaries between human and other (Creed 10). This is all the more true in classical horror tales, where at the end of the film the abject is expelled and order restored.
While by no stretch of the imagination a slasher film, The Shining is nonetheless rife with bodily fluids, and over half of the film's key scenes take place in the bathroom, a room devoted to the abject and to its expulsion. Danny's very first "shine" of the hotel (shown to him in the bathroom by Tony, the "little boy who lives in [his] mouth") is of the elevator awash in a tidal wave of blood, engulfing the frame. Faced with the hotel's evil presence, Danny trembles violently as foamy drool runs down his chin. Trying to escape, Wendy cuts herself on broken glass (in the bathroom). Jack's face is slick with sweat as he paces the halls, and he bleeds freely when Wendy smashes his head with a baseball bat, then stabs his fingers when he attempts to axe his way into the bathroom. The briefly-glimpsed pig-headed man bent over another guest hints at more overtly sexual bodily fluids, while the putrefying flesh of the zombie hag Jack embraces embodies what Creed calls the ultimate abject figure, the corpse (Creed 10). Kubrick uses all his technical wizardry and tight cinematic control to confront the spectator with the uncontrollable, the transgressive, the abject: what Julia Kristeva refers to as "something rejected from which one does not part" (Kristeva 4). For Bakhtin, this "uneasy dialogue" is the very nature of what he calls "the intentional stylistic hybrid":
Kubrick's ability to convey a sense of the untranslatable nature of language, to enter into a dialogue with the spectator about the failure of communication, characterizes his hybrid, contradictory idiolect. The profound and unresolved malaise the spectator experiences upon seeing (and hearing) The Shining proves that he can, in fact, "speak Kubrick."
Bakhtin, Mikhaïl. The Dialogic Imagination. Michael Holquist, ed. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, trans. Austin : Univesrity of Texas Press, 1981.
Bell-Mettereau, Rebecca. "Searching for Blobby Fissures: Slime, Sexuality and the Grotesque." Bad: Infamy, Darkness, Evil and Slime on Screen. Murray Pomerance, ed. New York : SUNY Press, 2004. p. 287-299.
Creed , Barbara. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, Feminism, Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 1993.
Girard , Gaïd. "Au-dessus du labyrinthe : à propos d'un extrait de The Shining (1980) de Stanley Kubrick." La Licorne 36 (1996) p. 181-192.
Kozloff , Sarah. Overhearing Film Dialogue. Berkeley : University of California Press, 2000.
Kristeva, Julia. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. New York : Columbia University Press, 1982.
Scorsese , Martin. Cahiers du Cinéma, n°534 (Avril 1999), p. 23.
Tesson , Charles. "Seul Contre Lui." Cahiers du Cinéma 534 (avril 1999) p. 22-23.
—http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0000040/bio (Kubrick Quotations)
—http://www.killerfilm.com/film_reviews/read/ All- Work-and-No- Play- Makes- Stanley- Kubrick-a-Fucking- Genius-674 Submitted October 22, 2007.
Agrégée d'Anglais, Elizabeth Mullen teaches English at the Université de Bretagne Occidentale in Brest, France. Conference lectures include Weekend on the Wild Side: New Perspectives on Boorman's "Deliverance" (International Gothic Association, Aix-en-Provence , 2007) and Adaptation and the Southern Grotesque: Flannery O'Connor's 'Wise Blood' as Seen by John Huston (Journée d'Etudes, Université de Poitiers, 2004). She has also recently published article on The Haunting (Image & Narrative, 24). Her doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Gilles Menegaldo, will focus on the dialectics of language and malaise in American film adaptations of the 1960s and 70s, with particular emphasis on the Gothic and the Grotesque.
Contact : email@example.com
This site is optimized for Netscape 6 and higher
site design: Sara Roegiers @ Maerlantcentrum