Online Magazine of the Visual Narrative - ISSN 1780-678X
Heeding the Creole Voice (in the Seychelles Islands): Alternatives to race and nation as identifiers of cultural value
Author: Michael L. Naylor
Abstract (E): When centuries of labeling or categorizing of cultures and their expressions (music inclusive) by designations of racial or national origin fail to describe the true nature or benefit of the cultures, it becomes essential to look into alternative paradigms and describers to re-define human perception.
Abstract (F): Des siècles d'étiquetage et de catégorisation n'ont pas suffi, en raison justement des origines raciales ou nationales des concepts prônés, pour décrire correctement la vraie nature et les vrais enjeux des cultures. Il convient donc d'opter pour une tout autre démarche afin de mieux redéfinir la perception humaine. Cet article tente de décoder les origines de certains obstacles à une perception vraiment multiculturelle, tout en suggérant plusieurs alternatives méthodologiques glanées lors de nombreuses discussions avec des musiciens et des personnes des Seychelles. Il s'intéresse aussi au rôle que joue la voix dans la culture et esquisse quelques perspectives capables d'aider les chercheurs occidentaux dans leur quête de précision et d'équilibre dans l'étude de la culture.
keywords: Seychelles, multiculturalism, orality, perception
For reasons that relate more to the academic rituals in completing a Ph.D. program and the tradition of cultural arrogance that presupposes merit based upon the predominance of the author's interpretation over the reporting of the culture-bearer's voice, the research upon which this paper is based, was originally constructed in the first person, an American musician/student visitor to the Seychelles Islands (Indian Ocean island group). Thankfully, a progressive de-emphasis in the authoritarian and empirical perspective of the Western academic ritual in favor of the "voices of culture" (insider voice) has greatly facilitated the emphasis of cultural perspectives from that of the curious visitor increasingly to the voices of those whom we study, or better yet --- from whom we seek enlightenment .
Although one can argue that the phenomenon of the Western academician seeking "truth" and balance in perspective has been in place longer, there has always been a trace of patronization and even larger elements of cultural-centrism manifest in the entrenched indoctrination in discussing cultural phenomenon by perspectives of identity. Much of this tendency is linked to the five-hundred year tradition of the Western university culture in discussing cultural manifestations by racial and national/ethnicity identifiers and origins.
As humility finds greater emphasis as a reflection of wisdom, and multiple truths and circular discourse between culture-bearers of diverse backgrounds begins to find its way through the maze of established traditions in conclusion-seeking, we, as a community of Western scholars, will find greater freedom to explore processes not manifest through argumentation or the proving of "a" point, but rather on the multiplicity of truths and reformation of the generally inflexible academic exercise itself. As to ethnographic discussions, the preponderance of a great many formulas has been formatted upon rigid adherence to the myths of identification of ethnicity by race and nation. But this mindset no longer has power against the more relevant dynamics of multi-cultural exchange, hybridization, and what I will term "creolization" (from the linguistic studies of "creative" fusion and perpetual re-creation of culture over time). Both the objects and methodologies we use to discuss, must obviously now evolve to meet the phenomenon we seek to understand.
To attempt clarity in a field of newly budding perceptions myself, the discourse that follows is much less a pursuit of point, an exercise in asserting my own brilliance or prowess in the six-hundred year dogma of personal assertion, or an attempt to claim ownership [certainly the motivator of much of what we now seek to "undo" and disclaim], but rather an attempt at vivifying the potential latent in seeking the wisdom of cultures that do not as pervasively buy into the myths of racial and national identity as cornerstones of critical analysis or discourse. To accomplish this, I will (attempt to) assert the voice of the Seychellois perceptions of creolization and perceptions of identity over my own.
In deference to the fore-mentioned humility and the de-programming of ownership from the culture of Western academia, I will not quote the multitude of Western scholars to whose work I am indeed grateful and by which, I have been influenced, but will seek instead to claim authority from the voices of the mothers, musicians, and muses of Seychellois culture and lore that truly inspired anything of worth that may emerge from this work. My wife, the true voice of the Seychelles culture and my partner in all areas of publication will negotiate strategies with me, contest imbalances, and ultimately determine to a large degree, what you will read. And finally, music (as much as I love it and have studied, composed, and performed it over the past four decades) will never be the focus of my discussion, but rather a window through which alternatives in perception of race and cultural values, some which may challenge a few of the channels and methodologies customary in European and American scholarship, may be viewed.
Creolization - "the creativity in culture"
I began my research intending to create a survey of the music and musical-dance genres of the Seychelles Islands  a group of ninety-two islands located in the Indian Ocean, North of Mauritius and East of Kenya. Since the initial research, in which musical material was gathered, studied, and then discussed through a variety of essays and papers, the study has taken a series of turns. What began as a project (spread over time) of the musical genres as separate cultural expressions reflecting the cultural "origins" of the population of Seychelles (East African [Mozambique, Tanzania], already mixed cultures [Mauritius, Madagascar], and European [French and English]), became a discussion of cultural and ethnic processes of the Islands, viewed through the Seychelles musical genres and interviews with the people of Seychelles. The process in altering my analysis of musical genres from the relationship to European or African origins towards that of trying to capture the voice of the Seychellois in regard to their perceptions of their own culture --- was slow, tedious and directly proportionate to my own maturation in deprogramming the following: 1) that the strength of my research would be directly proportionate to its scientific, empirical, and statistical support as well as the degree to which my findings are stated relative to the conventions of Western academia; 2) that identification of music (and similarly all cultural expressions) by racial and national identifiers or by seeking to identify and quantify the distance of expressions found to the "origins" of the contributing expressions would be the means by which "science" would emerge from some otherwise fluid and perpetually changing cultural dynamics; and 3) that my own personal "ownership" of the ideas and discoveries I espoused would be critical to my advancement in the academic community - therefore, humility and the exaltation of the culture-bearer to the rank of author, and myself to that of cultural reporter (a relationship I now value) would require postponement.
To be sure, discussions of hybridization, cultural fusing and mixing, synchretization, or any of the multitude of variations of terminology which we might use to expel the tendency to focus upon origins, identify uniqueness, or separate the "older" traditions from the newer, are essential perimeters from which to begin discussion. Multi-cultural exchanges can only be seen accurately against the backdrop of a more fluid, multi-faceted and interdisciplinary vision of what we seek to understand. The process itself, is valuable in inciting movement from the dogmatic adherence to labeling by the constructs of Western perception to alternative visions which mirror human reality --- summarized: all cultures are now and have always been multi-cultural fusions of incalculable exchanges with other cultures since before the advent of recorded history.
Therefore, it's not if we are multicultural, but rather in what manner we are multicultural and how the fusions and multiple variations of ethnicity manifest themselves or can help us to become comfortable and fully exploit the ever emerging reality of our interconnectivity that is, (or perhaps should be) the means by which we validate our scholarship. By creating flexible models of analysis and compatibly flexible terminology we are better able represent the dynamics and fluidity of the human and cultural realities we seek to explain.
Not to belittle myself or my own work, but to contribute to the humility I seek both to obtain and model, it took me no less than three trips to the Seychelles, hundreds of recordings and interviews, and numerous thesis' and papers, before my frustrations in attempting to conform Seychellois expressions of cultural values and perceptions to my inclinations and indoctrinations were finally given over to the inclinations of the Seychellois themselves. I had spent the majority of my research focusing my attention upon the "origins" of contribution to the modern Seychellois music, the capturing of immobile or fixed "culture-graphs" of Seychellois evolution, and discussing these earlier traditions of kreolité (the state of being creole [from latin crear ]) as the focus of analysis. Only slowly, did the hypocrisy of my efforts give way to a slowly emerging intuitive inclination and the reality of the process of creolization . . . cultural creativity and fusion, as manifest in the music and minds of the Seychellois and the perpetual change in "tradition." 
To my defense, I would need to unveil and at times battle the influence of our collective Western ancestry including both colonization and more insidiously veiled Euro-American cultural colonization (the influence of Western values and perception [i.e.materialism] through education and media). Complicated by the extensive emphasis of nationalism and the stratification of "worlds" (first, third), the perpetuation of this phenomenon in the American perception of racial identity (oblivious to the fact that cultural fusions and the reality of creolization is hardly thwarted by political, economical, or ideological divisions of culture groups or racial stratification) and multiplied by the fact that Western capitalism, politics, and education have firmly entrenched these values and broadcast them relentlessly vis-à-vis an insatiable adoration for technology and media, the search for validity and accuracy in our 21 st century multi-culturscape, is no walk in the park.
Even from the perspective of evaluating musical genre, as an American musician with the belief that Western classical music was, well . . . Western (despite the origins of all of its scales in northern Africa and the Arab/Jewish world, its instruments - a multi-cultural fusion of numerous cultures, its storytelling, opera, and religious doctrines equally multi-cultural), and that Blues, Jazz, and Gospel music in America was clearly African-American (therefore African, despite a passing acknowledgement of Western instruments and song forms finding there way into African culture),  I was, at first, devoid of capacity to contend with the possibility that there were in fact cultures not as extensively influenced by stratification by racial and national identifiers as was I.
(building a case for re-identification)
Viewed against the context of their short 200 plus year history, the evolution of Seychelles culture is as strong an example of active and continuous intra and inter cultural exchange as may exist anywhere. Bereft of indigenous culture-groups, then colonized first by the French, then the British, the Seychelles had neither the abundance of land or resources to make it a viable candidate for either slavery or for extensive and continual contact with the "empires." Therefore, despite an initial attempt to create a cotton industry - slavery disintegrated within two decades, captured slave ships dumped thousands of Africans from a variety of both Eastern and Western African cultures onto the islands, spice traders, merchants, and sailors from Arabic lands, India, Singapore, and all points north and east filtered into the island culture. In time, beyond an occasional visit by the British to protect the strategic location of the islands to the empire, and a very mild influx of settlers from Europe, the creolization process -- without much of the baggage of economic, political or racial hierarchy, could begin in earnest. 
The result: the Seychellois language and culture is termed creole , and as such reflects the complexity of cultural change one would expect to find in similar cultural fusions among other creole cultures. Since diversity is a condition that one applies to all multi-cultural non-homogeneous societies, viewing in what manner the Seychellois perceive themselves to be creole and equally how these conscious affinities for identification manifest themselves in the strategies of cultural expression (in this case through music) across the continuum of time and generations became the focal point of my work.
What do we hope to discover? Beyond the liberation of identification of others and ourselves strictly by nationality or racial destinations, perhaps a means by which we can also learn to change the lens' we use to analyze an expression or view and event isolated from the continuum of time. At one point it is the focus of discussion may be colonization or decolonization, at another, the influence of cultural fusion and creolization, perhaps another the blatant influence of political or economic policy, and still another - the influence of continued cultural colonization that comes from the writers and readers of journals such as this or from a culture's access to media broadcasting the day's variation of reality.
Regardless, it seems clear that centuries of doctrines of exclusion and discussion of human expression by what distinguishes culture groups fortified by nomenclatures of race and national origin must be compensated by an intense investigation into the reality of (whatever terms we choose) fusion, exchange, or creolization as the dominant dynamic of human expression. Though seemingly fixed cultures or ethnicities (especially parts of Europe and Asia)- may be characterized by a comparatively slower dynamic of creolization, in comparison to the more violent fusions of the diasporas, only when for example, the "classical music" of European ancestry is examined by the influence of the nomadic Gypsy or Jewish communities, or by the contributions of Chinese and Middle Eastern cultures into their respective fusions, can we hope to get a more accurate picture of the dynamics of human reality. This entire change in paradigm, that is, seeking to understand the multiple dynamics of globalization, hybridization, and creolization not just now - but historically, begs the question: when have we NOT been multi-cultural? Or more appropriately, when has looking at the manner by which we are multi-cultural -- not been the most significant of perspectives from which to glean a vision of our collective reality?
To backtrack slightly, we know that the process of cultural and ethnic exchange within and between cultures occurs via unconscious assimilation and the establishment of conscious strategies.  Observation of the relative depth or rate of exchange or corresponding value placed upon the mixing of ideas, beliefs, and expressions within a culture affects therefore, the degree to which the culture acknowledges its kreolité or its process of creolization . In cultures where there is considerable ethnic diversity involved in numerous exchanges (flux) over time, observation of the process of cultural exchange over time may be defined as the culture's unique creole continuum (Abraham, 1980) or, in this study, its creolization process.
In the Seychelles, the case for observing the manifestation of the Seychellois conscious mindset of creolization over any semblance of identification strategy by racial or cultural origin, is fortified by the relative isolation of the culture both geographically and, in the earlier phases of its evolution, culturally -- from the polarizing dynamics of slavery or the depth of political and economic control by the European colonizer. Owing also to the relative un-importance of the culture in the scheme of the Empire and the relative isolation from the intensity of inter-European competition which continually reinforced the myths of racial or national stratification as the primary means of self-identity acquisition, inhabitants of the Seychelles islands were thrown earlier and arguably more intensely into a search for identity that would accommodate, not exclude the diversity of their origin.
The search for re-identification against the backdrop of the technology that puts us continually in contact with each other, is what draws the inquisitive mind perpetually back to the well of de-categorization. Now the pendulum of cultural discourse, which has moved from one version of "centrism" to another, begins to search for the middle point.
Where the principle of cultural "creativity" weighs into the discussion of cultural hybridization and fusion, is in the implication of perpetual change based upon ever-changing and modulating strategies. Understanding the perpetual nature of human creativity and the modulating strategies upon which a single race of people (the human race) is constantly striving to upgrade their respectability, physical, spiritual and intellectual well-being, and ultimately find or exalt their cultural "uniqueness" amongst their peers, however difficult it may be to measure, seems essential to the understanding of the nature of human exchange itself.
So, with only a few pages left, allow me to represent the multiplicity of truths generated by commentary from Seychellois musicians and culture bearers into a few categories of simultaneously existing strategies within the Seychelles creolization process. Through the comments of these musicians and scholars I sincerely hope that the reader will feel as I did, the "self acceptance" and "interior vision" of the Seychellois as varied, flexible, ever in flux, and demanding of a modulation in the discipline of discourse from a search for truth, to the discussion of a multiplicity of processes . . . as truth. I leave any most interpretation exclusively up to the reader (excepting for brief footnotes and comments as will enhance the readers understanding of genres). I sincerely hope that you will enjoy the "creole" mindset as have I.
Lessons from the "creole" mindset
Creole principle #1: To accept change and exchange across generations and culture groups is the natural dynamic and greater tradition of life itself.
Note: Affinity for Caribbean music may have begun as early as the 1960's (Harry Belafonte), but has intensified over time. First - French-derived creole cultures and music (Zouk from Martinique's "Kassav"), shortly after Reggae from both Africa and Jamaica - but at present everything from Salsa, Merenque, to Calypso and Cumbia has found its way both to the island airways --- and the musicians creolization processes.
Note: The adaptability of the Seychellois creole not only asserts itself on the foreign settler to the Seychelles (frequently over generations), but is distinctly evident in the ease by which Seychellois generally adapt to outside cultures and linguistic/cultural alternatives. As witnessed elsewhere (i.e. in Europe amongst the Dutch or Luxembourg's) the greater the historical basis for creolization in a culture's past, (mélange of cultural influences, languages, etc) the greater the force applied to adaptation, modulation, and creolization. Cultural patterns such as this generally produce an increased affinity towards cultural fusion and adaptation or towards acculturation of other creole influences.
Note: "Ton-Pa" is one of the last bearers of the older song traditions which use the "bombe" (berimbau-like - 1-string bow instrument) to tell stories from the past. He is still frequently quoted and used as reference by younger musicians as a means of drawing connection to parents, grandparents, or in tying music across generations.
Note: Until only the last decade, Seychelles had but one radio station. This station would constantly revolve between older traditions and newer traditions, music from the outside and music from within. What is striking to the ethnomusicologist, in analyzing the expressions of any stage of the continuum of creolization, unlike in larger cultures where you could not say you know exactly what may have influenced the creation of some new expression - in the Seychelles the process and dynamics of musical creolization were fascinatingly clear. The island now has multiple stations and television programming as well, so as in most cultures, the multiplicity of stimuli increase the speed and dimensions of creolization.
Note: We know that each colonizer brought the "status of their own creolization" with all of its frills (music and dances) to the location wherein the new creolization process would begin. Thus, the folk dances of the French and English (in the case of any culture colonized by either - and for the Seychelles - both!) of the 18 th and 19 th centuries (kamtole: a body of dances including the waltz, polka, Scottish, "jazz," and the contredanse or country dances which included the commandeur or caller) were the initial contributions of European cultures to Seychelles creolization. However, as Mahoune describes, the metamorphosis of all genres demands that the cultural identity of genre origin be given over to the dynamics of creolization.
Creole principle #2: Racism and colonization are two distinct yet frequently interwoven forces of cultural exclusion. Colonization, however, (especially that of Western education and media) is the greater of forces in both preserving the antiquated hierarchy of cultural preference, individualism, the forces of capitalism and ownership, while increasing the options from which a vibrant creole society can choose its vocabulary and strategies of identity.
Note: the dual influences of "islandness" (the impact of geographic isolation) and media, "star-power" and the circumambulating perception that one's uniqueness and value is not fully recognized . . . a comparative vision to the broadcasting of the predominant Western voice impacts all cultures. A marked escalation in the erosion of group and community identity has seriously compromised efforts to create and sustain musical collectives.
Note: Only in the late nineteen-eighties, did the Seychelles join most of the world in the consumption and projection of cultural images vis-à-vis television. The marked influence of Western media (imported programs from America and Europe) with all its positives and negatives has had a most notable influence on the musicians. So much of the locally produced programs involve musicians creating videos that have increasingly mirrored those produced in America and Europe. The impact and emphasis of individualism over a sense of community has been overnight and extensive. In time, however, the expertise of Seychellois musicians and media producers has grown to rival that of the West (in emulating smoothness, flashiness, tightly timed and produced programming). A surprising impact - is that an increase in attention to Seychelles music and musicians amongst the Seychelles population has also occurred.
An interview with Emmanuel Marie, recognized as one of the premier entertainers of Seychelles. It demonstrates the dichotomy of globalization, creolization, and the preservation identity. It also magnifies the possibility that identity can be kreolité or a strong affinity for creolization:
Note: At its worse, an individual in any culture will be influenced to completely accept or absorb another culture over one's own as a strategy for self-elevation and attainment of an externalized vision of self-respect. Although it may appear that this is more an issue of individual self-esteem and integrity than issues related to cultural colonization --- the voice of the colonizer (in this case American and European media) is strong indeed.
Creole principle #3 : The fully accepting "creole" mind, refuses to believe or adher to strategies of inferiority or ethnic/racial identity by the Western tradition. It prefers to see itself as a model of globalization and humanity's future.
Note: "That the problems raised by these multi-cultural realities have dimensions of an order of complexity far beyond our contemporary experience should but encourage us to marshal all our scientific skills to their solution. The answer, when it comes, must be realistic and flexible. Above all, it must involve an orientation in thought that, by giving full weight to the cross-cultural factor, will grant to all peoples their right of choice to identify their future with the continuities of their ancestral heritage." (M.J. Herskovits, 1972: 74)
That many Seychellois (and those of other islands or non-Western cultures) are neither intimidated nor completely infatuated by Western cultures, provides the fodder for the development of antidotes to many of the imbalances which plague Western culture and bind Western scholarship to outmoded paradigms. Flexibility based upon the visions and strategies determined by the peoples of these cultures, when implemented into the heart of Western academia, will greatly influence de-colonization in our own methodologies and ultimately produce far more sensitive and relevant artifacts as well.
Note: Mutia is a circle dance, believed to have been imported from Eastern Africa or through creolization of a similar genre in Mauritius. The Sega is the most popular dance genre of the Seychelles. It has had numerous shifts in emphasis, but is seen by most musicians as a fusion of both the Mutia and Kotis Anglisan (part of the Kamtolé repertoire of fusion dances from France and England).
Note: The following comments are from a series of interviews with Patrick Victor, the first Seychellois to make an impact internationally, and one of the continued forces in the creation and production of performing arts work (musical theater as well as staged music) which challenges popular music structures.
Finally - my Seychellois wife once entertained a graduate seminar at the University of Michigan. As the conversation came to a discussion of racial identity and national heritage --- tensions mounted as each partial truth vied in competition with another. Eurocentricity clashed with Afrocentricity. Established traditions in Western academic discourse met the potential of dissertation through modern multi-media in the arena of futility. And, finally disciplines which claimed nearly 500 years of entrenchment (the "ologies" of the University tradition) were pitted against the potential of integration, interdisciplinarity, and methodologies which might reflect the oral traditions and "alternative" visions of the non-Western world. Having heard enough, seen enough, and finally . . . having spoken little, my wife commented with the simplicity I had come to know from her mother, herself a master of intuitive wisdom:
I especially want to thank the following:
the Seychelles Government, the Ministries of Culture and Education and all archivists and media personnel, the Seychellois musicians, Bernard Koechlin (and Radio France Internationale), and all others quoted or discussed in the text, and especially Léonie and her beloved family for their continued influence on my perceptions --- and for the constant motivation to challenge and alter my own subterranean indoctrinations in seeking to understand our world by the outmoded and grossly inadequate search for origins by racial and national identifiers.
 Pronounced: English: "say - shells" or Creole: "Sey - sell"
 Tradition -from traditio or traditionis - "a delivery or surrender of something to someone or something else"
 To understand the phenomenon of assigning ethnicity in a racially polarized society to the extent that the assignments obscure the reality of the expressions themselves would be a thesis in itself. Superficially, however, we can say that the pendulum of justice in any society polarized by hierarchical racial/cultural perception and centuries of injustice frequently flows from one form of 'centrism" to other (Euro - to Afro) before finally settling in a place that recognizes multiple truths.
 See the works of Marion Benedict, J.T. Bradley, and especially Guy Lionnet.
 The initial formulation of my work in creolization owes extensive gratitude to the field of "creolization" studies in linguistics with special note of Suzanne romaine, Ian Hancock, and especially Talmy Gívon and works all scholars from Haiti, Mauritius and the Seychelles.
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1980 The History of Slavery in Mauritius and the Seychelles 1810-1875. Rutherford, NJ: Associated University Presses.
Okamura, Jonathan Y.
1981 "Situational Ethnicity," Ethnic and Racial Studies . 4: 452-465.
1985 Signifying Acts: structure and meaning in everyday life. Carbondale: South Illinois Univ. Press.
Peterson - Royce, Anya
1977 The Anthropology of Dance. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
1990 Multiculturalism: E Pluribus Plures. American Scholar 59.
1963 "Colonialism French-Style, 1945-55, a backward glance." In Essays in Imperial Government. Oxford: B. Blackwell.
1968 "Imperial Theory and the question of Imperialism after empire." In Africa and the Victorians, the climax of Imperialism. Oxford: B. Blackwell
1988 Pidgin and Creole Languages. London/New York: Longman.
1992 Hard Bop: Jazz and Black Music: 1955-1965. NY: Oxford Univ. Press.
1990 Voices of the African Diaspora. Ann Arbor: Center for AfroAmerican and African Studies.
Said, Edward W.
1979 Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books Edition.
1971 "Simplification, pidginization and language change." In Readings in Creole Studies. Edited by Ghent/Belgium: E.Story-Scientia P.V.B.A.
1979 The Ethnography of variation. Selected writings on Pidgins and Creoles . Edited and translated by T.L. Markey. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publ.
Schwartz, Judith L.
1987 French Court Dance and Dance Music: a guide to primary source writings. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press.
1992 Micromusics of the West: A Comparative Approach, Society of Ethnomusicology (SEM Journal : Vol. 36, no. 1
1991 "On the Tail of the Lion." In Creative Ethnicity: Symbols and Strategies of Contemporary Ethnic Life. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press.
1974 The Creoles of Sierra Leone. Responses to colonialism, 1870-1945. Edited Stern/Cicala. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.
1979 "Social interaction and the development of stabilized pidgins." In Readings in Creole Studies. Edited by Ghent/Belgium: E.Story-Scientia P.V.B.A.
1989 The taste of ethnographic things. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Taylor, Bonnie J.
1986 The Power of Unity. Beyond prejudice and racism. Compiled by National Race Unity Committee, Wilmette, IL.
1968 Forgotten Eden (A view of the Seychelles Islands). Great Britain: Camelot Press Ltd.
1974 "A short history of British Slavery," Sinews Empire , NY: pp. 272-273
1991 Music and Dance in Puerto Rico from the age of Columbus to Modern Times: an annotated bibliography. Metuchen, NY: Scarecrow Press.
Thomas, Richard W.
1990 Racial Unity. An imperative for social progres. Ottawa, Canada: Bahá'í Studies Publications.
1982 Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora. Washington, DC: Howard University Press
Warner, Keith Q.
1982 The Trinidad Calypso. A study of the Calypso as oral literature. London: Heinemann.
1960 Note on the Soquet Dance, (Jun. 6)
1983 Unabridged Dictionary. 2nd Edition, New York: Dorset and Baber.
Other sources from Seychelles Research.
And especially all of the interviews with Seychellois scholars, musicians, National Heritage personnel (1989, 1994, 1997, 1999), Jacob Marie (Ton-Pa), Patrick Pillay (Director Seychelles National Radio and T.V.), Patrick Victor ( Local Musican/former director of National Troupe), Michelle Marie (Radio Seychelles), Frank Isaac/Renald Isaac (Brothers in Law), Bennett Acouche (local musician, trained in Switerland), Jerry Souris (local musician, trained in France), Michel Rosalie (Assist Dir. Research/Ntl Heritage -- see notes), David Andre (Director, Musique Conservatoire de Seychelles-- see also "Folk Music of the Seychelles" transcriptions for guitar and other instruments), Jean Claude Mahoune, Norbert Solomon, Michel Rosalie, Léon Radegonde, David André, Kevin Valentin, Emmanuel Marie, Stanley Beaufond, Despilley Williams, Members of the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Tourism, Jean Marc Volsy, Patrick Victor, Jimi Savy --- and many more.
Heeding the Creole Voice (in the Seychelles Islands): Alternatives to race and nation as identifiers of cultural value was realized with culture reading by Léonie E. Naylor, M.A., M.S.
Michael L. Naylor, Ph.D. (ethnomusicology), M.M. (film and media composition) is currently Music Studies Director at Washtenaw Community College in Ann Arbor, Michigan (U.S.) and adjunct faculty at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. He is also the program director for the Center for Cultural Healing, a non-profit institute designed to create multi-culturally balanced educational materials through extensive use of the arts and media.
As a composer and musician, Dr. Naylor has performed with numerous musicians including Frank Sinatra, Julio Iglesias, Celia Cruz, and the Jon Secada. He has also toured or performed in numerous countries in Europe, South America, Asia, and Africa. He has recently completed a textbook: Exploring the Creativity in Culture . . . through the world of music which treats the world of musical expression equally and utilizes the perspectives and comments of the musicians from around the world, to help the reader glean incite into each work represented.
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